Find out how your study treats the first person before you use it. Do you want to know more about this subject? In the discussion, you write more interpretatively and colorfully about the results.
It has to be acknowledged, though, that the word limit that some journals put on abstracts means that it is not possible to answer all five of the above questions in your abstract, but in such cases key findings should not be something that gets sacrificed.
Finally, as a summary of the entire thesis, the abstract is the often the last thing to get finalised, but it shouldn't necessarily be the last thing to get written. If you're drowning in data or literature and feel you're not sure where you're going anymore, writing a "working abstract" might help you to get a "big-picture" view of what you're trying to do and, therefore, help you to get focussed again.
The Introduction and Literature Review All theses require introductions and literature reviews, but the structure and location of these vary considerably. Options that are used include: A brief introductory chapter with a lengthy separate literature review chapter.
A lengthy introductory chapter which includes a brief "Introduction" section followed by literature review sections. A lengthy introduction which includes a literature review. A brief introductory chapter with detailed literature reviews relevant to the topic of each chapter provided separately in each chapter this is typical when each chapter is basically or literally a paper for publication.
More than one literature review chapter.
For example, one chapter might review what's known in an area and identify gaps or problems to address, while another might review the methodological approaches taken to investigating questions in this area and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these, thus providing a justification for the approach taken in this thesis this may also occur in the first sections of a Methodology chapter.
Regardless of the approach taken, the Introduction to a thesis answers the three questions: May be stated in terms of both general aims e. Why was it done? If the introduction is brief, then provide only the broad motivation e. Why is there interest in this area?
Why is it important? Why is this an interesting topic? Why pursue the specific line of investigation you do? One way of thinking about a brief introduction, is to think about providing the level of motivation or justification that would satisfy a well-educated friend of yours curious about what you are doing and why, with the literature review providing the level of motivation and justification that would satisfy an expert in the field.
Longer introductions might occur when a significant amount of background material needs to be reviewed in order for the reader to appreciate the context and significance of your research question.
But if this is the case, then it is important to make it clear to the reader what the point of a long review is! How do the pieces of the thesis fit together? This is the "outline" or "overview".
Provides the rationale for proceeding in the way you did and perhaps for why you have organised things the way you have e.How to Write an Effective Discussion Dean R Hess PhD RRT FAARC Introduction Elements to Include in the Discussion State the Major Findings of the Study The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies.
Questions raised by previous studies. The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction.
So reread your introduction carefully before writing the discussion; you will discuss how the hypothesis has been demonstrated by the new research and then show how the field's knowledge has been changed by.
This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of research used to provide context and background information.
The Abstract The abstract is a short version of the entire thesis which should answer the following five questions (not necessarily in this order or separately): Common problems include (see Paltridge and Starfield (), Discussion. Typically in a Discussion section, one would: Summarise, appraise, interpret and explain the results.
The list should include a short title for each figure but not the whole caption. List of Tables The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in.
. The discussion chapter is the problem child of the thesis. The chapter most likely to provoke fear, uncertainty and doubt.
Not everyone writes a chapter called "discussion", but everyone has to do discussiony bits because, well - that's where the creative magic of the PhD happens. The discussion section is scary because you have to.