When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money — a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy.
Towers of Great Zimbabwe. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century.
Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century. This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwenear Masvingoand by other smaller sites.
The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trading states which had developed in Zimbabwe by the time the first European explorers arrived from Portugal.
These states traded gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. This Shona state ruled much of the area of present-day Zimbabwe, plus parts of central Mozambique.
It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal.
The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi meaning "destroyers" expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau[ when?
They continued the stone-building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane.
When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong warriors and Griqua commandos.
By the Ndebele had conquered the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states, and reduced them to vassaldom. Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions.
Mzilikazi died in ; following a violent power struggle, his son Lobengula succeeded him. Colonial era and Rhodesia — [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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May Learn how and when to remove this template message Matabeleland in the 19th century. InRhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as "Zambesia".
In " Southern Rhodesia " became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi,   which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately and later termed Northern Rhodesia now Zambia. Shortly after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republicthe Ndebele rebelled against white rule, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo.
Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts known as Chimurenga against company rule during and Welcome to Insights IAS Revision Plan for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam – If you are wondering why these questions are posted, please refer to the detailed Timetable provided HERE..
These questions serve TWO purposes: One to test your revision skills; Second is to give you a glimpse into topics that you might have missed during revision. This paper documents the sources of data used in the construction of the estimates of the Levy Institute Measure of Economic Wellbeing (LIMEW) for the years , , , , , , , , , , , and Note changing Sectoral composition of India economy since independence.
Composition – Services – Steady significant Increase (was more marked after reforms), Industry – Less marked increase (stagnated after reforms), Agriculture Significant Decline.
Patterns in the above graph explain inequity of Indian growth story. The story of the US economy over the past 40 years has been one of rapid technological change, growing corporate monopoly power, and deepening despair for a rising share of workers.
There will be no happy ending unless the US radically changes its approach to managing the impact of innovation. This paper analyzes the effect of crude oil prices on the macro economic variables of the Indian economy. The oil prices have started rising significantly since the Fair Use Policy; Effect Of Crude Oil Prices On Indian Economy Economics Essay.
Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March. There is, of course, a legitimate argument for some limitation upon immigration. We no longer need settlers for virgin lands, and our economy is expanding more slowly than in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.