Definition[ edit ] Folk psychology explains human behavior on the basis of mental states, including beliefsdesiresand intentions. Prior intentions reflect forethought about intentions-in-action; prior intentions do not need to be carried out to be considered intentions.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. By correcting for age in assessing hearing, one tends to overestimate the hearing loss due to noise for some and underestimate it for others.
As noise damage progresses, damage spreads to affect lower and higher frequencies. Various governmental, industry and standards organizations set noise standards.
Exposures to other ototoxins such as pesticides, some medications including chemotherapy agents, solvents, etc. This is called a synergistic interaction. Since noise damage is cumulative over long periods of time, persons who are exposed to non-workplace noise, like recreational activities or environmental noise, may have compounding damage from all sources.
Many people are unaware of the presence of environmental sound at damaging levels, or of the level at which sound becomes harmful. Noise damage is cumulative; all sources of damage must be considered to assess risk. Sound intensity sound energy, or propensity to cause damage to the ears increases dramatically with proximity according to an inverse square law: In the USA, Studies of primitive peoples indicate that much of what has been attributed to age-related hearing loss may be long term cumulative damage from all sources, especially noise.
People living in preindustrial societies have considerably less hearing loss than similar populations living in modern society. Among primitive people who have migrated into modern society, hearing loss is proportional to the number of years spent in modern society.
A summary report was published in Syndromic deafness occurs when there are other signs or medical problems aside from deafness in an individual. These are diseases that have deafness as one of the symptoms or as a common feature associated with it.
Many of the genetic mutations giving rise to syndromic deafness have been identified. In nonsyndromic cases, where deafness is the only finding, it is more difficult to identify the genetic mutation although some have been discovered.
A single base change in a large Costa Rican family was identified as causative in a rare form of low frequency onset progressive hearing loss with autosomal dominant inheritance exhibiting variable age of onset and complete penetrance by age The most common dominant syndromic forms of hearing loss include Stickler syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome.
The most common recessive syndromic forms of hearing loss are Pendred syndrome and Usher syndrome. The congenital defect microtiadeformed or unformed outer ear, can be associated with partial or complete conductive deafness, depending upon the severity of the deformity and whether the middle ear is also affected.
It can also be associated with abnormalities of the inner ear giving rise to an additional sensorineural component to the hearing loss mixed deafness.
Dozens of additional genes for nonsyndromic deafness have been identified. Premature birth can be associated with sensorineural hearing loss because of an increased risk of hypoxiahyperbilirubinaemiaototoxic medication and infection as well as noise exposure in the neonatal units.
Disorders[ edit ] strokes — Depending on what blood vessels are affected by the stroke, one of the symptoms can be deafness. Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheatha covering that protects the nerves. If the auditory nerve becomes damaged, the affected person will become completely deaf in one or both ears.
There is no cure for MS. This usually occurs as a consequence of trauma, including barotrauma, and can give rise to vertigo as well as hearing loss. The patient may be generally unwell at the time. Measles may cause auditory nerve damage but usually gives rise to a chronic middle ear problem giving rise to a mixed hearing loss.
Syphilis is commonly transmitted from pregnant women to their fetuses, and about a third of infected children will eventually become deaf. Although rare, it is possible for autoimmune processes to target the cochlea specifically as a first presentation.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is one of the autoimmune conditions that may precipitate hearing loss. Otosclerosis is a condition that can cause fixation of the stapes or stirrup in the middle ear preventing its movement and causing a conductive hearing loss.
Vestibular schwannomaerroneously known as Acoustic neuromasand other types of brain tumors can cause hearing loss by infringement of the tumor on the vestibulocochlear nerve Congenital problems Superior semicircular canal dehiscencea gap in the bone cover above the inner ear, can lead to low-frequency conductive hearing loss, autophony and vertigo.
These medications are considered ototoxic. This includes loop diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs both over-the-counter aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen as well as prescription celecoxib, diclofenac, etc. The link between NSAIDs and hearing loss tends to be greater in women, especially those who take ibuprofen six or more times a week.Mendon to Light Gazebo for Christmas and Hold 20th Anniversary of Festival of Trees.
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